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Searching information on drug research projects

This database contains information gathered in the course of the ERANID project during 2013 and 2014. Principally, it contains details of research projects on illicit drugs carried out since 2010 within the six ERANID countries and funded by the European Committee: Belgium; France; Italy; Portugal; The Netherlands; and the United Kingdom. However, this database will not capture all illicit drugs research carried out within a country.

57 projects matched the selected criteria:

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Balancing costs and effects of Multi Systemic Therapy compared to Care As Usual in adolescents with antisocial behaviour: a methodological exploration

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2007
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Treatment responses, Methodology issues
Objectives
The aim of this project is first to evaluate the balance between costs and effects of Multi Systemic Therapy (MST) as compared to Care-As-Usual (CAU) in adolescents with serious behavioural problems, and second to develop a framework for economic evaluation in child and youth care.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Economy, Epidemiology, Other medical sciences, Other discipline
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The treatment of juveniles with serious antisocial and delinquent behavior is a challenge for practitioners and academia. Multi Systemic Therapy (MST) is promising as such. It has been claimed to be more effective in the treatment of juveniles with serious forms of antisocial behavioural patterns and delinquency, though conclusive evidence still is lacking. A study of Dekovic and co-workers is expected to deliver substantial new evidence. It concerns a randomized controlled trial that compares MST to Care As Usual in the Dutch setting. This study as yet does not comprise an economic evaluation. Knowledge on the cost-effectiveness of MST and other treatments for serious antisocial and delinquent behaviour is very scarce internationally and non-existent for the Netherlands. In general, such economic evaluations of child and youth care can be expected to require a methodology for the assessment of costs and of outcomes and for the valuation of outcomes that differs significantly from economic evaluations of health care.
Performed by
University Medical Center Groningen, Dept of Health Sciences
University of Utrecht, Department of Social Sciences
University Medical Center Groningen, Dept of Medical Technology Assessment
University of Groningen, Dept of Orthopedagogy
Funded by
ZonMw
Summary references
Jansen DE, Vermeulen KM, Schuurman-Luinge AH, Knorth EJ, Buskens E, Reijneveld SA. Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2013;13: 369
Website
-
Published reference(s)
Jansen DE, Vermeulen KM, Schuurman-Luinge AH, Knorth EJ, Buskens E, Reijneveld SA. Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2013;13: 369
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Boys and Girls - an interactive web-based series to promote healthy lifestyles among European adolescents

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Prevention responses
Objectives
Central objective of the Boys and Girls project was to develop and evaluate a web campaign to increase the awareness of a risky lifestyle for young people aged 15-18 years old who are unemployed and not follow education. At a number of moments, the project's target group is involved in the development of the webseries. A central role played the content workshops, organized in Naples. In interactive sessions, young people from Denmark, Germany, Austria, Spain and the Netherlands discussed about what they consider important in making the web series. At the same time, the project partners discussed what messages and goals should be.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Other medical sciences
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Initial identified needs
The project behind the web series aimed to evaluate how social media and new media in general could be used to communicate health public messages to a difficult target audience such as adolescents.
Performed by
CBO
Business Solutions Europe
Funded by
ZonMw, EU Health Programme
Summary references
http://www.eurocare.org/library/updates/boys_girls_a_web_based_series_to_promote_healthy_lifestyles_among_adolescentshttp://www.boysandgirlslabs.eu/
Website
http://www.boysandgirlslabs.eu
Published reference(s)
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Community Prevention System Change in the Netherlands and the United States

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2011
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Prevention responses, Determinants of drug use, Methodology issues
Objectives
This project compared the implementation and adoption of Communities that Care (CTC), a community prevention system to prevent adolescent drug use and delinquency, in the Netherlands and the US. Both studies were modeled similarly using the same instruments and collecting many of the same measures. This binational collaboration was a unique opportunity to study how an intervention which was developed in the US can be implemented, adopted, and sustained in different cultural and policy contexts. This study aims to investigate whether implementation of CTC in the Netherlands is associated with similar changes in community prevention systems as in the US and whether these changes are similarly associated with improvements in communities'profiles of risk and protection and rates of adolescent drug use and delinquency, as hypothesized by the CTC's theory of change.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology, Epidemiology, Political sciences, Sociology, Other medical sciences, Other discipline
Read more…
Initial identified needs
This study was an administrative supllement for the ZONMW funded project Communities that Care: Effectiveness of a community intervention strategy for the prevention of alcohol and drug use and other problem behaviour of youngsters in the Netherlands(120610017, M. Steketee, PI). This supplemental project was conducted collaboratively by researchers from the Social Development Research Group at the University of Washington (US) and from the Verwey-Jonker Institute (NL). A prior ZonMW/NIDA funded binational supllemental project (DA15183-03S1) to compare the prevalence of youth marijuana use and levels of risk and protection experienced by youths of similar age in the US and the Netherlands was succesfully completed in 2007 by the same researchers.
Performed by
Verwey-Jonker Institute, Netherlands
Social Development Research Group, for the University of Washington (Seattle), US
Funded by
ZonMW for NL, NIDA for US
Summary references
The results are presented on two international conferences. On 31th of May 2012 the project is presented on the international postersession of the Society of Prevention Research in Washington and on the 7th of December 2012 it is presented in a workshop of the EU-Society of Prevention in Krakau (Poland). Three articles are produced in this period: Steketee, M., Oesterle, S., Jonkman, H., Hawkins, J.D., Haggerty, K.P. & Aussems, C. (2013). Transforming prevention systems in the United States and the Netherlands using Communities that Care. Promising prevention in the eyes of Josine Jonker-Tas, European Journal of Criminology, 19(2), 99-116.. Oesterle, S., Hawkins, J.D., Steketee, M., Jonkman, H., Brown, E.C., Moll, M. & Haggerty, K.P. (2012). A cross-national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent drug use and delinquency in the United States and the Netherlands. Journal of Drug Issues, 42: 337. DOI: 10.1177/0022042612461769. Jonkman, H., Aussems, C., Steketee, M., Boutellier, H. & Cuijpers, P. (2013). Prevention of problem behaviours among youngsters: the impact of the Communities that Care-strategy in the Netherlands (2008-2011). In revision.
Website
Published reference(s)
see answer on question 8
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Delineating risk factors for the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, in comparison with tobacco use, in adolescence

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2007
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use
Objectives
The proposed study focused on the interplay of individual vulnerability, reflected by genotype and (endo)phenotype, and environmental risk factors in the initiation and maintenance of adolescents’ cannabis use, which is often combined with tobacco use (defined in the present proposal as “cannabis users” ), compared to adolescents who only use tobacco (defined as “tobacco users”) . Two unique data-sets were used: (1) to analyse the shared and specific (endo)phenotypic characteristics of cannabis users and tobacco users; (2) to analyse the extent to which genetic influences impact various stages of cannabis use (from initiation to maintenance of use) and to examine whether these genetic influences differ across stages for cannabis users versus tobacco users; (3) to examine the specific individual risk factors relating to the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology, Other discipline
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Initial identified needs
In this project we focused on risk factors of initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, a substance that is frequently used in adolescence. For future developments in the field of prevention of cannabis use in youth, it is of great importance to better describe, discriminate, and predict the complex nature and course of cannabis use. Because many cannabis users also use tobacco on a regular basis, and often smoke cannabis mixed with tobacco, the present proposal aimed to differentiate risk factors for cannabis users from those of tobacco users. This will help identify youth at risk for early onset of cannabis use and progression of use in a vulnerable age-period.
Performed by
VU University Amsterdam Department of Developmental Psychology
Erasmus Medical Center Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
Funded by
NWO
Summary references
not applicable yet
Website
not applicable
Published reference(s)
Korhonen et al. (2008). Role of individual, peer and family factors in the use of cannabis and other illicit drugs: a longitudinal analysis among Finnish adolescent twins. Drug Alcohol Depend, 97(1-2):33-43. Korhonen, Prince van Leeuwen et al. (2009). Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use: the TRAILS study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010 Jan;49(1):61-9. Creemers HE, Korhonen T, et al. (2009). The role of temperament in the relationship between early onset of tobacco and cannabis use: the TRAILS study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1;104(1-2):113-8. Korhonen T, Latvala A, Dick DM, Pulkkinen L, Rose RJ, Kaprio J, Huizink AC. Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence. Behav Genet. 2012 Jul;42(4):614-25. Huizink AC, Levälahti E, Korhonen T, Dick DM, Pulkkinen L, Rose RJ, Kaprio J. Tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use among Finnish adolescent twins: causal relationship or correlated liabilities? J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010 Jan;71(1):5-14. van Leeuwen AP, Creemers HE, Greaves-Lord K, Verhulst FC, Ormel J, Huizink AC. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use: the TRAILS study. Addiction. 2011 Aug;106(8):1484-92. Dick DM, Meyers JL, Latendresse SJ, Creemers HE, Lansford JE, Pettit GS, Bates JE, Dodge KA, Budde J, Goate A, Buitelaar JK, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Huizink AC. CHRM2, parental monitoring, and adolescent externalizing behavior: evidence for gene-environment interaction. Psychol Sci. 2011 Apr;22(4):481-9. Prince van Leeuwen A, Creemers HE, Verhulst FC, Ormel J, Huizink AC. Are adolescents gambling with cannabis use? A longitudinal study of impulsivity measures and adolescent substance use: the TRAILS study. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011 Jan;72(1):70-8. Creemers HE, Harakeh Z, Dick DM, Meyers J, Vollebergh WA, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Huizink AC. DRD2 and DRD4 in relation to regular alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents: does parenting modify the impact of genetic vulnerability? The TRAILS study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 May 1;115(1-2):35-42. van Leeuwen AP, Verhulst FC, Reijneveld SA, Vollebergh WA, Ormel J, Huizink AC. Can the gateway hypothesis, the common liability model and/or, the route of administration model predict initiation of cannabis use during adolescence? A survival analysis--the TRAILS study. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jan;48(1):73-8.
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Effectiveness of intensive community-based care for persons with complex addiction problems: Contribution of specific program components

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2008
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Harm reduction responses
Objectives
The present study investigates the effects of interferential care on problem severity, quality of life, and problems with referral and engagement. Also explored are the active ingredients of interferential care by looking at the differences in characteristics and effects between three sites. Finally tested was the influence on the effects of: the individual characteristics of the clients, the referring person/organization, and the problem areas.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Sociology, Other medical sciences, Other discipline, Statistics or epidemiology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The method of interferential care (also public mental health care or intensive community based care) is an innovative approach for assertive outreach meeting the specific needs of the European context where the regular services too have several home based characteristics. The method is developed and widely used in the Netherlands but was not been tested on effectiveness before. This was done for the first time in this study.
Performed by
Tranzo, Tilburg University
Funded by
ZonMw
Summary references
?
Website
Published reference(s)
Roeg, DPK, LAM van de Goor, MALM van Assen, HFL Garretsen (2013). Effects of interferential care: A community-based care program for persons with severe problems on several life areas. Manuscript under review. Roeg, D. P. K., van de Goor, L. A. M., & Garretsen, H. F. L. (2013). Predicting initial client engagement with community mental health services by client factors. Manuscript under review. Roeg, DPK, MALM van Assen, MCM Voogt, HFL Garretsen. 2012.De effecten van bemoeizorg: De resultaten van een onderzoek bij Nederlandse bemoeizorgteams. Sociale Psychiatrie: vakblad sociale psychiatrische verpleegkunde 32(102): 71-73. Roeg, D.P.K., M.A.L.M. van Assen, M. Voogt, HFL Garretsen. 2012. De effecten van bemoeizorg: De resultaten van een onderzoek bij Nederlandse bemoeizorgteams. Tilburg: Tranzo, Tilburg University.
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Effects of a novel serotonergic drug on striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability and its relevance for the treatment of cocaine addiction

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
see protocol
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
see protocol
Performed by
AMC
Funded by
AMC, Florida University
Summary references
see protocol
Website
Published reference(s)
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Is the Measure of Placement in an Institution for Prolific Offenders promising?

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2011
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Drug related crime responses
Objectives
Giving insight into the possible effectiveness, so that politicians can decide upon the progress of the measure
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The measure exists since 2004 and this is the first study into its possible effectiveness
Performed by
WODC
Funded by
WODC
Summary references
Tollenaar, N. & Laan, A, van der (2012). Effectiveness of the Measure of Placement in an Institution for Prolific Offenders. The Hague: WODC There is a Fact Sheet and a Technical Report see www.wodc.nl
Website
www.wodc.nl
Published reference(s)
see above for the reference
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Monitor of Frequent Offenders

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2005
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Drug related crime responses
Objectives
Monitoring characteristics of frequent offenders + their recidivism
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Frequent offenders are one of the priorities of the policy; reducing their recidivism is an important goal
Performed by
WODC
Funded by
WODC
Summary references
Tollenaar, N. & Laan, A. van der (2013). Monitor veelplegers 2012. Trends in de populatie zeer actieve veelplegers uit de periode 2003-2009. The Hague: WODC. This is the most recent edition of the monitor. www.wodc.nl
Website
www.wodc.nl
Published reference(s)
see above (Tollenaar & Van der Laan, diverse publications, www.wodc.nl)
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Negative reinforcement in cocaine dependence: the integration of CRF and 5-HT stress and emotional systems

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
Our first aim was to test this hypothesis using the unique serotonin transporter knockout rat model, which mimics the 5-HTTLPR. SERT-/- knockout rats and wild type controls (SERT+/+) were tested in both the short and extended access model of cocaine self-administration, interspersed with measurement of compulsivity with the progressive ratio schedule. At 24 h into withdrawal, as well as in an additional group of naïve rats, anxiety-related behavior was also measured. We expected that SERT-/- rats show increased anxiety-like behavior, resulting into increased vulnerability to escalate cocaine self-administration, excessive motivation to self-administer the drug, and exacerbation of the negative emotionality in the cocaine-dependent state. Our second aim was to measure CRF density in subregions of the extended amygdala in both naïve and cocaine dependent SERT-/- and SERT+/+ rats, using immunohistochemistry. We expected the CRF immunoreactivity in naïve SERT-/- rats to be higher than in SERT+/+ rats, a difference that was expected to be further exacerbated in the cocaine-dependent state. Because SERT-/- rats exhibit high extracellular serotonin levels and display increased anxiety- and depression-related phenotypes, we argued that increased vulnerability to cocaine dependence in SERT-/- rats is due to long-term increase in extracellular serotonin levels. Our third aim was, therefore, to study the effects of viral-mediated SERT gene silencing in the DRN of adult wild-type rats on escalation of cocaine self-administration and CRF immunoreactivity. To this end, adeno-associated viral particles encoding a shRNA directed against the 5-HTT transcript were microinjected into the DRN. This approach reduced presynaptic serotonin transporter density in the DRN (see section 4 below). After two weeks, pre-trained animals were offered short and extended access to cocaine self-administration and CRF density in subregions of the extended amygdala were measured 24 h into withdrawal. We expected that adult SERT gene silencing mimics the SERT-/- rat findings, implying that increases in extracellular serotonin levels up-regulate the CRF stress system.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Individuals with cocaine addiction show increased negative emotionality, which is hypothesized to drive continuation of drug use and compulsivity in drug addiction. Importantly, the highly prevalent serotonin transporter (5-HTT) reducing short (s) allelic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in humans is also associated with negative emotionality, and is therefore expected to impact the vulnerability to cocaine dependence. In support, Dr. Homberg showed that serotonin transporter knockout (SERT-/-) rats, which have high extracellular serotonin levels due to the lack of 5-HTTs in presynaptic terminals, are highly motivated to self-administer cocaine under short access conditions and display increased anxiety- and depression-related phenotypes. Dr. Koob has established that neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stress system contribute to a negative emotional state upon drug termination and drive continuation of cocaine self-administration. Because serotonin strongly interacts with the CRF stress system in mediating emotional behavioral responses, we proposed the integrative hypothesis that inherited 5-HTT down-regulation sets up cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala CRF stress system, and thereby increases negative reinforcement in cocaine dependence.
Performed by
Group of Dr. Judith Homberg (Donders Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
Group of Dr. George Koob (The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA)
Funded by
ZonMW, NIDA
Summary references
Website
n/a
Published reference(s)
Homberg JR, Contet C. Deciphering the interaction of the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin brain systems in anxiety-related disorders. Journal of Neuroscience, 2009, 29:13743-13745. Verheij MM, Contet C, Nonkes L, la Tour J, Hanisch J, Vendruscolo L, Edwards S, Koob G and Homberg JR: Serotonin transporter gene variation and compulsive cocaine self-administration in rats. Program No. 873.05.2012 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. New Orleans, LA: Society for Neuroscience, 2012. Online.
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Why methylphenidate is not successful in cocaine dependent ADHD patients: a SPECT study comparing dopamine transporters before and after methylphenidate treatment in ADHD patients with and without cocaine dependence

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2012
Area(s) of research
Treatment responses, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
In the proposed study, we postulated higher baseline striatal DAT expression in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to ADHD patient without SUD, at baseline (i.e., drug-free situation). In addition, we postulated 10-20% lower DAT occupancy in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to those without SUD following treatment with identical dosages of MPH. We also postulated that identical dosages of MPH will be less effective in the reduction of ADHD symptoms and associated cognitive functions in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to patients without SUD. Finally, regarding whether differences in DAT occupancy may affect drug craving and drug use, we postulated that MPH will increase striatal DAT occupancy and possibly reduce drug craving in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to their baseline measures.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for the development of substance use disorder (SUD) although its relation to SUD is not understood. We do know, however, that the dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a fundamental role in both ADHD and SUD. Medications, such as methylphenidate (MPH), are blockers of the DAT and raise extracellular dopamine levels. In ADHD patients with SUD, however, these medications are not very effective, neither for treating ADHD nor SUD. Thus, ADHD patients with SUD are often not responsive to MPH. This raises two questions: why are patients with ADHD with SUD not responsive to adequate doses of MPH and how does this relate to SUD? A possible explanation is that ADHD patients with and without comorbid SUD differ in their baseline DAT density and perhaps similar doses of MPH produce different levels of DAT occupancy. In the proposed study, we postulated higher baseline striatal DAT expression in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to ADHD patient without SUD, at baseline (i.e., drug-free situation). In addition, we postulated 10-20% lower DAT occupancy in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to those without SUD following treatment with identical dosages of MPH. We also postulated that identical dosages of MPH will be less effective in the reduction of ADHD symptoms and associated cognitive functions in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to patients without SUD. Finally, regarding whether differences in DAT occupancy may affect drug craving and drug use, we postulated that MPH will increase striatal DAT occupancy and possibly reduce drug craving in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence compared to their baseline measures.
Performed by
AMC
jellinek
Funded by
zonmw
Summary references
Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence. Crunelle CL, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, Dom G, Schoevers RA, Booij J. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 May 31. doi:pii: S0924-977X(13)00146-6. 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.05.002.
Website
Published reference(s)
Crunelle CL, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, Dom G, Schoevers RA, Booij J. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 May 31. doi:pii: S0924-977X(13)00146-6. van Wingen GA, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, Schmaal L, Dom G, Booij J, Crunelle CL. Reduced striatal brain volumes in non-medicated adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;131:198-203. Crunelle CL (2012). Development of new neurobiological strategies to treat patients with cocaine dependence (Doctoral Thesis Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam) Crunelle CL, Veltman DJ, van Emmerik – van Oortmerssen K, Booij J, van den Brink W (2012). Impulsivity in adult ADHD patients with and without cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;129:18-24 van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, van de Glind G, van den Brink W, Smit F, Crunelle CL, Swets M, Schoevers RA (2012). Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance use disorder patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend 122:11-9 Crunelle CL, Veltman DJ, Booij J, Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, den Brink W (2012) Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research. Brain Behav 2:499-523 Crunelle CL, de Wit TC, de Bruin K, Ramakers RM, van der Have F, Beekman FJ, van den Brink W, Booij J (2012) Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats. Nucl Med Biol 39:640-644 Crunelle CL, van de Giessen E, Schulz S, Vanderschuren LJ, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J (2013). Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability. Addict Biol [Epub ahead of print]. Crunelle CL, Schulz S, de Bruin K, Miller ML, van den Brink W, Booij J (2011) Dose-dependent and sustained effects of varenicline on dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21:205-210 Crunelle CL, Miller ML, Booij J, van den Brink W (2010). The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline and the treatment of drug dependence: a review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 20:69-79 Crunelle CL, Miller ML, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J (2009). Varenicline increases striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in rats Addict Biol 14:500-502
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