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Searching information on drug research projects

This database contains information gathered in the course of the ERANID project during 2013 and 2014. Principally, it contains details of research projects on illicit drugs carried out since 2010 within the six ERANID countries and funded by the European Committee: Belgium; France; Italy; Portugal; The Netherlands; and the United Kingdom. However, this database will not capture all illicit drugs research carried out within a country.

57 projects matched the selected criteria:

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Impulsivity, a treatable risk factor in the onset and relapse to substance use disorders

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2008
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Treatment responses, Determinants of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
Given the recent preclinical and clinical evidence for an important role of cognitive performance in addictive behaviors, we hypothesize that: “Since impulsivity is a prominent risk factor in the onset of drug dependence and relapse behaviour, treatment of this cognitive deficit will provide an innovative strategy for the clinical management of substance dependence.” This hypothesis will be tested in both humans (relapse) and rats (onset and relapse) with the following objectives: 1. To investigate how cognitive deficits in impulse control interact with the motivational value of drugs and drug-associated stimuli. 2. To investigate whether pharmacological challenges that enhance cognitive functions influence motivational aspects of drug-seeking behaviour, and - vice versa - whether drugs that are well established in preclinical models to reduce the motivational value of drug-associated stimuli improve relevant cognitive processes. 3. To investigate whether long-term treatment with drugs, known to improve cognitive performance, reduce the propensity to relapse in addicts. 4. Having established the nature of the relationship between impulsivity and drug abuse, the multidisciplinary animal studies performed within the CNCR will enable us to examine its molecular and cellular basis in the brain and to define as yet unknown biochemical targets for pharmacotherapeuticals. As our previous discovery of rimonabant as an effective compound to attenuate relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in abstinent rats provided the scientific rationale for current clinical trials (De Vries et al., 2001; De Vries and Schoffelmeer, 2005), it is foreseen that the present project will provide additional intervention strategies for the treatment of individuals suffering from substance dependence. Thus, this research proposal represents an important step towards the ultimate goal of our research, i.e. the development of adequate pharmacotherapeutical interventions that take into account the individual cognitive characteristics of addicted patients.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Psychology, Other medical sciences, Psychiatry
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Addictive disorders affect a steady proportion of the population, and result in significant negative personal effects (loss of jobs, psychosocial problems), and costs to society (absence from work due to hangover, treatment costs). Finding vulnerability factors and successful (psychopharmacological) interventions is therefore highly relevant. The current literature on neurobiological indicators of relapse is small, but promising. The same is true for the progress that has been made in the pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence, small but promising results with moderately effective interventions. However, until now, progress has been rather slow in the development of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of cocaine addiction. It is our firm belief that more progress can be made when studies on the neurobiological process of addiction and relapse are combined with studies on the potential effectiveness of promising new medications. Therefore, this proposal combines expertise on neurocognitive processes in addiction and relapse in humans with expertise of biochemical and cognitive processes in addiction and reinstatement in animal models. The added value of the combined research effort is that similar designs and paradigms are used in human and animal studies to compare appetitive responses to drug-related stimuli and corresponding neural activation patterns and that these responses are linked to individual performances in cognitive functioning. The human studies will provide knowledge on neurobiological risk indicators for subjective craving and relapse, outcomes that have high practical relevance for the clinical addiction field, i.e. craving reduction and relapse prevention through cognitive behavioural or pharmacological interventions. Investigating whether pharmacological agents can affect impulsivity and saliency of drug related stimuli, and whether they may affect relapse, will provide insight into their mechanisms of action. This may result in a wider applicability of pharmacological agents in the broader field of addiction, as e.g. modafinil has only been tested in cocaine dependent patients, and rimonabant has been tested only in obesity and nicotine dependence. It should be noted that these human studies do not provide data on the role of cognitive and motivational factors in the development and onset of addictive behaviours. It is therefore of great relevance that these human studies are combined with animal studies using the same cognitive paradigms and very similar measurements as the ones used in the human study of this proposal. The animal studies allow for the study of cognitive and motivational (e.g. impulsivity) as risk indicators for the onset of addictive behaviours as well as for reinstatement of drug using behaviours after a period of abstinence. In addition to the monitoring of cognitive processes (similar to the human studies), these animal studies also create ample opportunities for the study of gene expression and biochemical indicators of the addiction process. Finally, collaboration of researchers from these different fields (experimental animal research, neurocognitive research in humans, neuroimaging research in humans, and treatment research in humans) opens the way for future collaborative activities with a cross-fertilization of ideas, experimental designs and measurement procedures and with better prospects to find effective treatments for patients with a broad range of dependence problems.
Performed by
AMC, Department of Psychiatry
University of Antwerp, Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute
VU University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences
Funded by
ZonMw, ONWAR-Brain Imaging Fund
Summary references
(a) Impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct consisting of several independent aspects with different underlying neural mechanisms, which is important to acknowledge when studying impulsivity in psychiatric disorders and in the development of treatments targeted at reducing impulsive behavior. (b) In addition to the neurotransmitters traditionally implicated in addiction such as dopamine, glutamate neurotransmission seems to play an important role in impulsivity and is disturbed in cocaine dependent patients. Therefore, glutamate is an important target for the treatment of substance use disorders characterized by distorted impulse control, like cocaine dependence. (c) NAC seems to be an effective and elegant agent to restore glutamate abnormalities in addiction (cocaine dependence), and these beneficial effects of NAC on glutamate abnormalities could underlie previous and current observations of beneficial clinical effects of NAC in substance dependent individuals.
Website
-
Published reference(s)
NB: This list is incomplete (project recently finished, some publications still in press. Dutch articles in Psychiatry journal and newspaper articles not included. PhD theses: 2 finished, 1 in finalization. 1:Broos N, Schmaal L, Wiskerke J, Kostelijk L, Lam T, Stoop N, Weierink L, Ham J, de Geus EJ, Schoffelmeer AN, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, de Vries TJ, Pattij T, Goudriaan AE. The relationship between impulsive choice and impulsive action: a cross-species translational study. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36781. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036781. Epub 2012 May 4. PubMed PMID: 22574225; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3344935. 2: Broos N, Diergaarde L, Schoffelmeer AN, Pattij T, De Vries TJ. Trait impulsive choice predicts resistance to extinction and propensity to relapse to cocaine seeking: a bidirectional investigation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 May;37(6):1377-86. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.323. Epub 2012 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 22318198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3327843. 3: Goudriaan AE, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Dom G, Schmaal L. Neurophysiological effects of modafinil on cue-exposure in cocaine dependence: a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study using pharmacological fMRI. Addict Behav. 2013 Feb;38(2):1509-17. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 22591950. 4: Joos L, Goudriaan AE, Schmaal L, De Witte NA, Van den Brink W, Sabbe BG, Dom G. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in alcohol dependent patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Mar;226(2):273-83. doi: 10.1007/s00213-012-2905-8. Epub 2012 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 23096771. 5: Joos L, Schmaal L, Goudriaan AE, Fransen E, Van den Brink W, Sabbe BG, Dom G. Age of onset and neuropsychological functioning in alcohol dependent inpatients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Mar;37(3):407-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01949.x. Epub 2012 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 23025636. 6: Joos L, Goudriaan AE, Schmaal L, Fransen E, van den Brink W, Sabbe BG, Dom G. Effect of modafinil on impulsivity and relapse in alcohol dependent patients: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Aug;23(8):948-55. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.10.004. Epub 2012 Nov 8. PubMed PMID: 23141152. 7: Joos L, Docx L, Schmaal L, Sabbe BG, Dom G. [Modafinil in psychiatric disorders: the promising state reconsidered]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2010;52(11):763-73. Review. Dutch. PubMed PMID: 21064019. 8: Schmaal L, Joos L, Koeleman M, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE. Effects of modafinil on neural correlates of response inhibition in alcohol-dependent patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 1;73(3):211-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.032. Epub 2012 Aug 1. PubMed PMID: 22858150. 9: Schmaal L, Goudriaan AE, Joos L, Krüse AM, Dom G, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ. Modafinil modulates resting-state functional network connectivity and cognitive control in alcohol-dependent patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 15;73(8):789-95. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.025. Epub 2013 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 23399373. 10: Schmaal L, Goudriaan AE, van der Meer J, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ. The association between cingulate cortex glutamate concentration and delay discounting is mediated by resting state functional connectivity. Brain Behav. 2012 Sep;2(5):553-62. doi: 10.1002/brb3.74. Epub 2012 Jul 16. PubMed PMID: 23139901; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3489808. 11: Schmaal L, Veltman DJ, Nederveen A, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE. N-acetylcysteine normalizes glutamate levels in cocaine-dependent patients: a randomized crossover magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Aug;37(9):2143-52. doi: 10.1038/npp.2012.66. Epub 2012 May 2. PubMed PMID: 22549117; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3398721.
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Innovative approaches for cocaine pharmacotherapy (the case of rimonabant)

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2008
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Treatment responses
Objectives
Proof of principle study on the possible efficacy of rimonaband in the treatment of cocaine dependence and a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms (fMRI/SPECT) of the effect of rimonabant on reduced craving and drug seeking for cocaine.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology, Other medical sciences, Psychiatry
Read more…
Initial identified needs
At the time of the application there was effective pharmacotherapy available for the treatment of cocaine dependence. based on the theory and animal Experiment, cannabinoid receptor anatgonists like rimonaband looked like a promising new treatment option.
Performed by
Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam
Funded by
ZonMW
Summary references
This project had to be cancelled in its original form because rimonabant was taken of the market due to a series of serious s(fatal) adverse events in the treatment of obese and nicotine dependent patients with rimonabant. It was then decide to replace rimonabant by varenicline, a partial agonist of the nicotinic achetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Please find the rsukts of that study below: 1: Crunelle CL, Veltman DJ, Booij J, Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, van den Brink W. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research. Brain Behav. 2012 Jul;2(4):499-523. doi: 10.1002/brb3.65. Epub 2012 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 22950052; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3432971. 2: Crunelle CL, de Wit TC, de Bruin K, Ramakers RM, van der Have F, Beekman FJ, van den Brink W, Booij J. Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats. Nucl Med Biol. 2012 Jul;39(5):640-4. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.11.006. Epub 2012 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 22261145. 3: Crunelle CL, van de Giessen E, Schulz S, Vanderschuren LJ, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J. Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability. Addict Biol. 2011 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00369.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21955259; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3252421. 4: Crunelle CL, Schulz S, de Bruin K, Miller ML, van den Brink W, Booij J. Dose-dependent and sustained effects of varenicline on dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Feb;21(2):205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.11.001. Epub 2010 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 21130610. 5: Crunelle CL, Miller ML, Booij J, van den Brink W. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline and the treatment of drug dependence: a review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Feb;20(2):69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Dec 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 19959340. 6: Crunelle CL, Miller ML, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J. Varenicline increases striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in rats. Addict Biol. 2009 Sep;14(4):500-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2009.00168.x. Epub 2009 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 19650815.
Website
Published reference(s)
1: Crunelle CL, Veltman DJ, Booij J, Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, van den Brink W. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research. Brain Behav. 2012 Jul;2(4):499-523. doi: 10.1002/brb3.65. Epub 2012 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 22950052; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3432971. 2: Crunelle CL, de Wit TC, de Bruin K, Ramakers RM, van der Have F, Beekman FJ, van den Brink W, Booij J. Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats. Nucl Med Biol. 2012 Jul;39(5):640-4. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.11.006. Epub 2012 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 22261145. 3: Crunelle CL, van de Giessen E, Schulz S, Vanderschuren LJ, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J. Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability. Addict Biol. 2011 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00369.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21955259; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3252421. 4: Crunelle CL, Schulz S, de Bruin K, Miller ML, van den Brink W, Booij J. Dose-dependent and sustained effects of varenicline on dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Feb;21(2):205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.11.001. Epub 2010 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 21130610. 5: Crunelle CL, Miller ML, Booij J, van den Brink W. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline and the treatment of drug dependence: a review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Feb;20(2):69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Dec 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 19959340. 6: Crunelle CL, Miller ML, de Bruin K, van den Brink W, Booij J. Varenicline increases striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in rats. Addict Biol. 2009 Sep;14(4):500-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2009.00168.x. Epub 2009 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 19650815.
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National Drug Monitoring - nuisance and crime

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Law enforcement responses, Drug related crime responses, Supply and markets
Objectives
Montoring the drug situation in The Netherlands
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology, Psychology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Montoring the drug situation in The Netherlands
Performed by
WODC - Marianne van Ooyen and Ronald Meijer
Trimbos Institute - Margriet van Laar & team Drug Monitoring
Funded by
WODC, Ministry of Health/Trimbos Institute
Summary references
Last edition: Van Laar, M. et al. Nationale Drug Monitor, Jaarbericht 2012. Utrecht/The Hague: Trimbos Institute/WODC www.wodc.nl
Website
Published reference(s)
see above
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Neurocognitive aspects of drug dependence

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
Investigate the neurocognitve defecits in drug dependent patients and investigate the relevance of these deficits in the treatment of these patients
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Drug dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder and few treatment options are available. By investigating the neurocognitive aspects of drug dependence we hope to find more clues for developing effective treatments for drug dependent patients.
Performed by
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Funded by
NWO, ZOnMW
Summary references
Marhe, R., van de Wetering, B. J. M., & Franken, I. H. A. (2013). Error-Related Brain Activity Predicts Cocaine Use After Treatment at 3-Month Follow-up. Biological Psychiatry, 73(8), 782-788. Marhe, R., Waters, A.J., van de Wetering, B.J.M., & Franken, I.H.A. (2013). Implicit and explicit drug-related cognitions during detoxification treatment are associated with drug relapse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1), 1-12.
Website
http://www.clinicalpsychologyrotterdam.nl/personal.php?id=Franken
Published reference(s)
Marhe, R., Luijten, M., van de Wetering, B. J., Smits, M., & Franken, I. H. (2013). Individual differences in anterior cingulate activation associated with attentional bias predict cocaine use after treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(6), 1085-1093. Marhe, R., van de Wetering, B. J. M., & Franken, I. H. A. (2013). Error-Related Brain Activity Predicts Cocaine Use After Treatment at 3-Month Follow-up. Biological Psychiatry, 73(8), 782-788.
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Number of coffeeshops in The Netherlands and local policies

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2013
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Law enforcement responses, Harm reduction responses, Supply and markets
Objectives
to get information about the number of coffeeshops in The Netherlands, the way municipalities carry out their coffeeshop policy and the developments over the years
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Sociology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Information about the coffeeshop policy for the ministry of Justice
Performed by
Intraval, Bureau for social-scientific Research and Consultancy
Funded by
ministry of Justice
Summary references
see website: www.intraval.nl
Website
www.intraval.nl
Published reference(s)
see website www.intraval.nl
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Problematic cannabis use. Effectiveness of the Adolescent Cannabis Check-Up

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses
Objectives
The objective of the project is to establish the effectiveness of the ACCU in a Dutch population of 14 -21 year old non-treatment seeking frequent cannabis users by means of a randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The research questions of the RCT are as follows: 1. Will the ‘ACCU’ generate superior effects over prevention as usual (an information brochure about cannabis) in terms of a) reducing cannabis use, b) reducing symptoms of dependence, and c) improving psycho-social functioning? And will these effects be maintained up to 3 months and a year? 2. Can prognostic variables be identified that predict (un)favourable outcomes at follow-up 3 months and a year later (i.e. moderation effects)? We will determine the moderating effects of mode of recruitment, the number of joints used per week and psychosocial functioning. The research questions of the process evaluation are: 3. What are characteristics of the young people reached by the intervention (age, gender, etnicity, problems)? 4. How do respondents rate the Adolescent Cannabis Check-Up (after the first motivational session)? In addition, drop-outrates will be used as an indicator of the feasibility of the ACCU. 5. How does the executive staff rate the quality and feasibility of the ACCU? How do they perform: quality of content delivery,adherence to the intervention protocol and therapist competence? 6. What are the impeding and facilitating factors in the organisation for implementation of the intervention? 7. To what degree takes referral to Addiction care place? Which characteristics differentiate adolescents that make use of the referral from those who do not?
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The evidence is growing that frequent cannabis use, especially at a young age, has adverse effects on both health and social functioning. The growing number of young people seeking help from addiction care is also an illustration of the problematic side of cannabis use. Therefore it is necessary to reduce the number of young problematic cannabis users; in order to achieve this effective prevention and treatment is needed. * Young people using cannabis will generally not see this as a problem themselves. However, they are at risk for a number of problems, including dependency. Therefore, interventions reaching out to non-treatment seeking populations of young cannabis users are an important part of the stepped care approach for young people. The ACCU targets young people who are using cannabis but not necessarily seek treatment themselves or initiate efforts to stop or reduce their use. * Brief motivational interventions for young people who use alcohol and other drugs have been advocated but not widely investigated (see for reviews, Tevyaw & Monti, 2004; Tati & Hulse, 2003; Smit et al., in press) and few have focussed specifically on adolescent cannabis use. Our Australian research partners are experts in this field and collaboration with this group can stimulate Dutch research and development in this area. * Problematic use of cannabis tends to go together with other psychiatric and behavioural disorders (Rigter, 2006). Qualitative research findings show that young people with emotional and/or behavioural problems are in favour of non-condemnatory ways of discussing alcohol- and drug-use (Van der Laenen, 2008). This suggests that motivational interviewing can be an acceptable method for youngsters with problematic cannabis use. * Compliance is generally problematic in substance use interventions, especially when it concerns young people who don’t see their use as a problem themselves. Therefore, it is important to know whether an intervention of short duration like ACCU is effective, because compliance will be much better compared to interventions of longer duration(Copeland et al., 2001). * Addiction care sees drug use among young people and the need to reach them with interventions as a priority. Therefore, the departments of prevention of organizations for addiction care have started to establish the infrastructure necessary for indicated preventive interventions. They have created networks for care (zorgnetwerken) within schools for secondary education and more recently schools for technical and vocational training. More and more addiction consult hours are instigated as part of these networks at schools to reach out to non-treatment seeking youngsters. A brief indicated preventive intervention for cannabis use fits very well into this kind of service. Therefore the Adolescent Cannabis Check-Up (when proven effective) has big potency for implementation in these consult hours. Another indication of this is the willingness of five addiction care organizations to participate in the study. * The ACCU fills a perceived gap in the capacity of existing treatment services to offer a cannabis-specific intervention that explicitly targets young people irrespective of their treatment-seeking status. * At the moment availability of effective indicated prevention is especially important now that special treatment programmes and facilities for adolescents have been developed (Parnassia/Mistral, VNN/Bauhuus and Jellinek) and thus adolescents who are reached by ACCU, but need further treatment can be referred to these facilities. This brings stepped care for young problematic cannabis-users within reach. * This intervention fits very well into the objective of the ‘deelprogramma 4’: well founded prevention and care, brief interventions as a first step in a stepped care approach, especially for groups that are difficult to reach
Performed by
Trimbos-instituut te Utrecht
Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research, University of Amsterdam
Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales
Funded by
ZonMw, Fonds Nuts Ohra
Summary references
A randomized controlled trial of an Australian two-session intervention based on motivational interviewing (the Adolescent Cannabis Check Up) was adapted as the Weed-Check and tested with a Dutch sample of 119 non-treatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users between 14-21 years old, that use cannabis at least weekly. Outcome measures at the 3-month and 9-month follow-up were participants’ quantity and frequency of cannabis use, symptoms of dependence, stage of change, and psychosocial functioning. Changes in all measures were in the expected direction, yet small and nonsignificant. In an effect modification analysis, participants with heavier cannabis use at baseline who received the Weed-Check had at 3-month follow-up greater reductions in cannabis use than those in the control condition. These effects were absent at 9-month follow-up. Conversely, at 9-month follow-up participants of younger age (14-17 years old) and participants without internalizing problems at baseline had greater reductions in cannabis use than those in the control condition. Further research is needed to interpret these results. Apart from this, both prevention workers and adolescents were enthusiastic about the Weed-Check which is illustrated by the drop-out figures. Of 52 participants that attended the first session, only 3 didn't show up at the second session.
Website
no website
Published reference(s)
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Recovery is up to you' in addiction care 2

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2011
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Consequences of drug use
Objectives
The goals were to get more insight in: (a) feasibility and usefulness of the course in addiction care, (b) experiences of course instructors and participants with the course, (c) compliance of the course instructors with the protocol and (d) important factors in planning and implementing of the course in addiction care.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Other medical sciences
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of the course for people with addiction problems.
Performed by
Tranzo, Tilburg University
Novadic-Kentron, Knowledge Centre for Self-Help and Consumer Expertise
Funded by
Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development
Summary references
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/herstellen-doe-je-zelf-in-de-verslavingszorg-2/samenvatting/
Website
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/herstellen-doe-je-zelf-in-de-verslavingszorg-2/samenvatting/
Published reference(s)
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/herstellen-doe-je-zelf-in-de-verslavingszorg-2/samenvatting/
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Substance use among adolescents in Special Education and Residential Youth Care

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2008
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use
Objectives
The main goals were to test the following hypotheses: 1. Adolescents in Special Education and Residential Youth Care show higher levels of substance use than their counterparts attending mainstream education. 2. The difference is largely due to a higher exposure to risk factors in the social environment and a higher individual vulnerability 3 These risk factors are causally associated with (the development of) risky substance use 4. Individual vulnerability factors modify the relationship between other risk factors and risky substance use
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Sociology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
There was a lack of information on smoking, alcohol and drug use among students in Special Education en adolescents in Residential Youth Care.
Performed by
Interdisciplinary Social Science, Utrecht University,
Funded by
ZonMw
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
Kepper, A, Monshouwer, K, Vollebergh, WAM. (2011) Substance use by adolescents in special education and residential youth care institutions. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20:311-319. In Dutch: Kepper, A., Monshouwer, K., van Dorsselaer, S. & Vollebergh, W. (2012) Middelengebruik door jongeren. Middelengebruik in de residentiële jeugdzorg, rec-4, praktijkonderwijs en leerwegondersteunend onderwijs. Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidswetenschappen, 5, 287 – 294
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Substance use and misuse in Intellectual Disability (SumID)

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Methodology issues
Objectives
(1)Provide clinimetric data (validity, reliability, consistency) for the NISPA SUMID Questionnaire into substance use in this population, by assessing convergent validity with biomarkers to assess recent (breath alcohol content (BAC) and urinalysis) and long term (hairanalysis and plaster analysis) use, (2)Establish population prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and cocaine use in Intellectually Disabled Adults based on a cross-sectional multistage clustered sampling survey, using the NISPA Questionnaire (Self Report and Collateral Report) on SUMID, (3)Identify socio-demographical determinants of risks of substance related problems in this population, (4) Provide insight in knowledge of, attitudes towards and consequences of substance use by persons with ID, and the relations between these factors and substance use, (5)Identify the population at risk for substance use, thus providing a population for future research into determinants of SUMID
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology, Other medical sciences, Addictology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The purpose of the present study is to provide a reliable tool for accurate screening and assessment of SUMID, and to establish prevalence rates and associated sociodemographic factors of SUMID in the Netherlands. These data will be of utmost importance for treatment planning and development of interventions and national policy.
Performed by
Tactus Addiction Medicine
Radboud University
Aveleijn
Funded by
ZonMW, Tactus, Radboud University
Summary references
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/substance-use-and-misuse-among-intellectually-disabled-persons-sumid/samenvatting/http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/substance-use-and-misuse-in-intellectual-disability-sumid-meten-is-weten-het-in-kaart-brengen-van/samenvatting/
Website
www.tactuslvbenverslaving.nl
Published reference(s)
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/substance-use-and-misuse-in-intellectual-disability-sumid-meten-is-weten-het-in-kaart-brengen-van/samenvatting/http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/substance-use-and-misuse-among-intellectually-disabled-persons-sumid/samenvatting/http://www.webwinkeltactus.nl/webshop/product/bekijk/id/37
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The epigenetics of gene-environment mismatches in cocaine addiction

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Determinants of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
Trait anxiety is strongly influenced by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter polymorphism. To model this human polymorphism and study compulsive intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior, we will make use of unique 5-HTT knockout rats. As the first to have used knockout rats in the field of neuroscience world-wide, we have shown that 5-HTT knockout rats display increased anxiety along with an escalation of intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior. In Specific Aim 1 we will reveal the influence of the environment on compulsive cocaine self-administration behavior in 5-HTT knockout rats, by social isolation and environmental poverty (high threat condition) or social and environmental enrichment (low threat condition) of the animals. In Specific Aim 2 we will measure genome-wide DNA (hydroxy)methylation as epigenetic readout. Particularly DNA hydroxymethylation is high in the brain, and may have an important role in establishing epigenetic patterns. DNA (hydroxy)methylation will be measured using oxidative bisulfite sequencing of untreated and potassium perruthenate treated DNA, a new method for quantitative mapping that allows for the first time the discrimination of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in genomic DNA at single-nucleotide resolution. Changes in DNA (hydroxy)methylation will be correlated to mRNA expression levels as measured by transcriptome sequencing and cocaine self-administration behavior. If proven, our novel ‘mismatch hypothesis’ will have substantial consequences for our thinking on individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Furthermore, increased understanding of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms may reveal new epigenetic markers of addiction vulnerability.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences
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Initial identified needs
Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop prevention and treatment strategies. It is the general assumption that behavioral traits like high anxiety predispose to compulsive cocaine self-administration behavior. Yet, according to psychological and psychiatric evolutionary views, anxiety is an adaptive behavioral trait when there is threat. Only when anxiety is displayed under environmental conditions lacking threat – i.e. when there is a mismatch between trait and environment - the need to compensate the failure to deal appropriately with the environment increases. This may well increase the functional use of drugs like cocaine. Therefore, we hypothesize that the increased risk to develop cocaine addiction is dependent on whether anxiety is in mismatch with the environment individuals are exposed to. This we term the ‘mismatch hypothesis’. We also hypothesize that the mismatch between trait and environment and the associated vulnerability to compulsive cocaine self-administration behavior are associated with epigenetic mechanisms in the emotion-related amygdala.
Performed by
Judith Homberg, dept. Cognitive Neuroscience
Henk Stunnenberg, dept. Molecular Biology
Funded by
Summary references
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Published reference(s)
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