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Searching information on drug research projects

This database contains information gathered in the course of the ERANID project during 2013 and 2014. Principally, it contains details of research projects on illicit drugs carried out since 2010 within the six ERANID countries and funded by the European Committee: Belgium; France; Italy; Portugal; The Netherlands; and the United Kingdom. However, this database will not capture all illicit drugs research carried out within a country.

57 projects matched the selected criteria:

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The impulsive brain: genetic moderation of tonic dopamine and vulnerability to cannabis and cocaine abuse

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Determinants of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
The current research proposal is designed to assess the influence of cocaine and cannabis on impulse control and to define the modulating role of the COMT and DBH genotypes on prefrontal DA and impulsive behaviors in cannabis and cocaine abusers.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Genetic variations may affect drug induced changes in impulsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse. Two prime genes linking loss of impulse control, prefrontal dopamine (DA) and drug addiction are catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Yet, the precise role of genetic variations on prefrontal DA and vulnerability to drug abuse is largely unknown.
Performed by
Dept Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands
Department of Psychiatry (966), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Funded by
ZonMW
Summary references
Website
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/the-impulsive-brain-genetic-moderation-of-tonic-dopamine-and-vulnerability-to-cannabis-and-cocaine/samenvatting/
Published reference(s)
Spronk D, van Wel JHP, Ramaekers JG, Verkes RJ (2013) Characterizing the cognitive effects of cocaine: a comprehensive review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, Epub ahead of print van Wel JHP, Kuypers KPC, Theunissen EL, Toennes S, Spronk D, Verkes RJ, Ramaekers JG (2013) Single doses of THC and cocaine decrease proficiency of impulse control in heavy cannabis users. Br J Pharmacology, accepted
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The role of serotonine in cocaine addiction: identification of a new diagnostic marker for cacaine addicts who react to 'reversal' behavioural therapy. De rol van serotonine in cocaine verslaving: Identificatie van een nieuwe diagnostische marker voor cocaine verslaafden die reageren op ‘reversal’ gedragstherapie

De rol van serotonine in cocaine verslaving: Identificatie van een nieuwe diagnostische marker voor cocaine verslaafden die reageren op ‘reversal’ gedragstherapie
Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
Recruitment of 50 cocaine addicts and 50 healthy persons and genotyping for the 5-HTTLPR-polymorphism. Behaviour evaluation through fMRI reversal learning tests in 8 s/s and 8 l/l cocaine addicts, as well as 8 s/s and 8 l/l healthy persons and BOLD response measurement with the citalopram-phMRI study. The fMRI task with anxiety/conditioning and extinction has been deleted from the study, because this couldn’t be realised in the implementation project. This was reported in an intermediate report. This task will be administered in the TOP project, in which a long MRI scan will be used. Instead of this task we have added a (short) task related to emotion (Hariri) and we have accomplished a robust activation of the amygdale as well as a resting state fMRI task (rs-fMRI) with which a comparison can be made between cocaine addicts an non-addicts with regard to the functional connectivity between different brain areas that are involved in anxiety/conditioning and extinction and emotion.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences
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Objectives (native)
Rekrutering van 50 cocaïne verslaafden en 50 gezonde mensen en genotypering voor het 5-HTTLPR polymorfisme. Gedrag evaluatie middels fMRI reversal learning testen in 8 s/s en 8 l/l cocaïne verslaafden, evenals 8 s/s en 8 l/l gezonde mensen en BOLD respons meting met de citalopram - phMRI studie. De angst/conditionering en extinctie fMRI taak is achterwege gelaten, omdat deze in de praktijk van het implementatieproject niet gerealiseerd kon worden, zoals eerder aangegeven in onze tussentijdse rapportage. Deze wordt wel meegenomen in het TOP project, waar er een lange MRI scan wordt afgenomen. Hiervoor in de plaats hebben we een (korte) taak opgenomen gerelateerd aan emotie (Hariri), en een robuste activatie van de amygdala bewerkstelligd, en een resting state fMRI taak (rs-fMRI), waarmee de functionele connectiviteit tussen verschillende hersengebieden betrokken bij angst/conditionering en extinctie en emotie kan worden vergeleken tussen cocaïne verslaafden en niet-verslaafden.
Initial identified needs
A diagnostic marker (5-HTTLPR genotype and/or citalopram-induced BOLD response) for ‘cause and treatment’ of cocaine addiction: on the one hand to identify healthy people who are vulnerable for the development of addiction, on the other hand to let cocaine addicts optimally benefit from a 'reversal' behavioral therapy.
Initial identified needs (native)
Een diagnostische marker (5-HTTLPR genotype en/of citalopram-geinduceerde BOLD respons) voor ’oorzaak en behandeling’ van cocaïne verslaving: enerzijds voor de identificatie van gezonde mensen die kwetsbaar zijn voor het ontwikkelen van verslaving, anderzijds om cocaïne verslaafden optimaal te kunnen laten profiteren van een ‘reversal’ gedragstherapie.
Performed by
Group of Dr. Judith Homberg (Donders Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
Group of Dr. Liesbeth Reneman (AMC, UVA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Funded by
ZonMW
Summary references
Website
n/a
Published reference(s)
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Antenna: Trends in alcohol, tobacco and drugs among Amsterdam youth

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2013
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Prevention responses, Law enforcement responses, Harm reduction responses, Determinants of drug use, Supply and markets
Objectives
Antenna started in 1993 and an annual report is provided since. The main goals are to provide policymakers and drug prevention with timely evidence-based information.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology, Epidemiology, Sociology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Drug markets are very dynamic. New drugs come and go. Timely evidence-based information about changes in demand and supply are crucial for drug policy.
Performed by
D.J. Korf, T. Nabben, A. Benschop
Funded by
Jellinek Prevention
Summary references
Annual reports (incl. Egnlish summaries) and other publications available at www.uva.nl/bonger.
Website
See: www.uva.nl/bonger
Published reference(s)
Publications untill Antenna 2012 at: www.uva.nl/bonger.
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Attentional processes in the development and maintenance of substance abuse and dependence

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
The general aim of this project is to investigate the role of attentional processes in the development and maintenance of substance abuse and dependence. More specifically the project was designed to examine the following research questions: 1.a.-Is attentional bias for appetitive, reward-related stimuli a vulnerability factor for the development of (poly)substance abuse in (young) adolescents? and which attentional components play a critical role in here (enhanced orienting and/or difficulty to disengage; lack of supervisory attentional control and/or relatively reflexively enhanced orienting/engagement)? 1.b.-Is enhanced appetitive bias predictive of poor treatment prognosis (e.g., in terms of less reduction of substance abuse, return of symptoms, larger transference to other substances)? 2.a.-Do substance dependent adolescents display substance specific attentional biases for personally relevant drug stimuli? 2.b.-Are current cognitive behavioural interventions successful in modifying attentional biases in substance dependent adolescents? and is treatment success directly associated with the reduction in AB? 2.c.-Is the strength of residual bias following successful treatment predictive of the return of symptoms in (formerly) substance dependent adolescents? 3.-Are interventions that are specifically tailored to reduce drug-specific attentional biases successful in reducing addictive behaviours? and what is the relative efficacy of reducing initial attention versus maintained attention in this respect?
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Substance abuse and dependence is an increasing problem in (young) adolescents with huge impact on both the individual and societal level (e.g., Monshouwer et al. 2008). Insight in factors that play a critical role in the development and maintenance of (multiple) substance abuse may provide welcome theory-derived clues for prevention and treatment. Current cognitive-motivational theories on addiction propose that prioritizing appetitive information plays a vital role in the causation and maintenance of substance abuse (e.g., Franken, 2003). More specifically it is assumed that there is a reciprocal relationship between craving and attentional bias (AB) for drug cues (Franken, 2003). In line with this view it has even been argued that the development of an AB for drug stimuli may be the core process underlying compulsive drug use (Lubman et al., 2000). In support of this view, a series of visual probe studies have shown that addicted individuals display an AB for drug stimuli: They were faster in identifying a probe when it appeared in the direct spatial vicinity of drug-relevant than of drug-irrelevant stimuli (e.g., Field et al., 2006). This pattern was evident both when stimuli were presented relatively short (500 ms) and relatively long (2000 ms), suggesting that addicted individuals are characterized by ABs in both orienting and maintenance of attention. However, virtually all of these studies followed a cross sectional approach. Therefore it can not be reliably concluded whether these ABs have a causal influence (e.g., Franken, 2003) or can better be interpreted as a mere symptom of addiction (Robinson & Berridge, 1993). The general aim of this project is therefore to investigate further if and how attentional biases are involved in (1) the development and (2) maintenance of substance abuse. ad 1. General appetitive bias: Vulnerability factor for substance abuse? Previous research has shown that an AB for general threat stimuli ("threat bias") set people at risk for responding with relatively strong feelings of distress upon confrontation with potentially threatening information (e.g., MacLeod & Hagan, 1992; van den Hout et al., 1995). Analogously, people who are characterized by an attentional bias for appetitive (rewarding) rather than threat stimuli (appetitive bias), may set people at risk for substance abuse and addictive behaviours. That is, appetitive bias may lower the threshold for being seduced by the presence of potentially addictive stimuli. In its turn, subsequent substance use will give rise to the generation of conceptual memory associations between these particular substances and appetitive consequences. The generation of these associations are promoted further by appetitive bias, via selectively facilitating the storage of rewarding aspects of the incoming information. Thus, via facilitating and shaping more specific stimulus-reward associations, appetitive bias may eventually contribute to excessive use of particular (classes of) rewarding stimuli (cf. Derryberry, Reed & Pilkenton-Taylor, 2003). The first specific aim of this project is to test whether a general appetitive bias can indeed be considered as a factor that contributes to the development and/or recurrence (following treatment) of (poly)substance abuse. If so, this would not only be of great theoretical importance but would also provide important clues for prevention and treatment of dependence. ad 2. Substance specific AB: Causal influence on maintenance of addictive behaviours? There is considerable evidence that addicted individuals show an AB for drug stimuli (see supra). If such substance specific AB plays a critical role in the maintenance of substance abuse, successful treatment should result in a meaningful reduction of AB. Moreover, to the extent that such bias is not merely an epiphenomenon of substanc
Performed by
University of Groningen
TRAILS
Verslavingszorg Noord-Nederland
Funded by
ZonMW, University of Groningen Psychological Institute
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
Van Hemel-Ruiter, M. E., de Jong, P. J., Oldehinkel, A. J., & Ostafin, B. D. (2013). Reward-related attentional biases and adolescent substance use: The TRAILS study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 142-150. doi:10.1037/a0028271; 10.1037/a0028271.supp (Supplemental)
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Chicken and Egg. A national study on the neurocognitive processes involved in the etiology of problematic use of licit and illicit drugs in adolescents and young adults

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2009
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use
Objectives
To analyse the neurocognitive processes involved in the etiology of problematic use of (il)legal drugs in adolescents, in particular to analyse to what extent neurocognitive processes are cause or effect of problematic drug use.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Research so far has assessed the importance of neurocognitive processes in the etiology of problematic (il)legal drugs use, but so far has not been able to assess the causal processes lying behind this connection.
Performed by
Projectleader Wilma Vollebergh, Dept of Interdisciplinary Social Science, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Utrecht
Projectleader Reinout Wiers, Dept of Developmental Psychopathology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Amsterdam
Funded by
ZonMW
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
Peeters, M., Wiers, RW., Monshouwer, K., van de Schoot, R., Janssen, T., & Vollebergh, WAM (2012). Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: The role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior. Addiction, 107, 1939-1946 Peeters, M., Monshouwer, K., van de Schoot, RAGJ., Janssen, T., Vollebergh, WAM. & Wiers, RW., (2013). Automatic processes and the drinking behavior in early adolescence: A prospective study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (in press).
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Improving the reach of outreaching addiction prevention among vulnerable youngsters by region-tailored prevention strategies

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Methodology issues
Objectives
The main goals of the proposed developmental project are: - Inventorying the characteristics and needs of the target group of the outreaching addiction prevention in a delimited region as a standard aspect of the to-be-developed work procedure; and - Actively involving local partners and target groups in order to signal and reach vulnerable youngsters and refer them to the appropriate help, together, with aggregated knowledge and effort, also as a standard aspect of the to-be-developed work procedure. The goal of the accompanying research is to evaluate a region-tailored work procedure using RAR, in order to improve the reach of outreaching addiction prevention, i.e., field work, among vulnerable youngsters. The end product is a well grounded, easily accessible method for region-tailored field work by (youth) addiction care focusing on vulnerable youngsters. What is meant by ‘improving the reach’ among vulnerable target groups? Considering a clearly defined target group (size, characteristics, needs) it implies that: - A larger proportion of the vulnerable group in a delimited region will be ‘found’ - There will be more contact with this group - The contact will last for a longer period - The quality of the contact will improve
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Demography, Epidemiology, Psychology, Other medical sciences
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The main goal of the present project is to improve the reach of outreaching addiction prevention (field work) among vulnerable youngsters (age 12 – 23) in different regions, using region-tailored intervention strategies. This approach has never been examined before. The project will enhance insight in ways the outreaching addiction prevention can be adapted to improve reach. There is no overlap with ongoing or finished projects of ZonMW. Prevention of (problematic) substance use among vulnerable youngsters is relevant because it is not without consequences. Adolescents have been shown to be more sensitive to alcohol than adults. They become more easily intoxicated and dependent and have increased risk for brain damage as compared to adults (Boelema et al., 2009; Crone, 2008; Verdurmen et al., 2006). Early prevention and treatment is important, especially because in the early stages of substance use chances of recovery are large (Snoek et al., 2010b) and significant health damage can still be prevented. The social and societal consequences of substance use, abuse and dependency among youngsters are substantial. There exists a causal relation between substance use (especially alcohol and cannabis use) and school drop-out (Townsend et al., 2007; Ter Bogt et al., 2009). Effective interventions targeting the prevention of school drop-out will lead to a considerable reduction of societal costs (In ‘t Veld, Korving, Hamdan & Van der Steen, 2006). Furthermore, if drug use continues in adulthood (illicit) drug use and dependency are predictive of homelessness (Kemp et al., 2006; Mallett et al., 2005; Orwin et al., 2004). The societal costs of homelessness are very high in the Netherlands (Cebeon, 2011). Preventing homelessness by means of preventing drug dependency will probably be cost-effective, since the societal costs of addiction prevention are low as compared to the costs of homelessness. In addition, the use of alcohol and drugs by youngsters that hang around in public can lead to nuisance and feelings of insecurity in the public population. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that alcohol dependency is predictive of the use of domestic violence (Finger, et al., 2010), whereas drug dependency is predictive of becoming the victim of domestic violence (El-Bassel, Gilbert, Wu, Go, & Hill, 2005). Nuisance, compromised safety and domestic violence lead to costs that are difficult to quantify. However, it is apparent that the societal impact is large, and often it is not the health risks of substance use that cause municipalities to intervene, but the consequences of substance dependency for the experienced safety of the public. Accordingly, outreaching addiction prevention is more often called upon by local governments in order to enhance safety in public places, for example places where youngsters openly use alcohol or drugs. The RAR method appears to be appealing for local governments in these situations, because within a relatively short period of time several selective and indicated preventions can be developed that are specifically directed to the local situation and the local target groups. Within a RAR-project the target groups are contacted in order to assess their characteristics and needs. Prevention activities are coordinated with the local partners (e.g. local police officer, youth work, the center for youth and family, school care-and advisory teams, social work and social care), who will also be involved in the development of the local procedure of the outreaching field work during the execution of the RAR-method. This will result in the desired unity, shared knowledge and efficiency on the local level. Consequently, this target group-customized outreaching prevention can be provided close to the client’s home.
Performed by
Stichting IVO
Funded by
ZonMW
Summary references
http://www.zonmw.nl/nl/projecten/project-detail/improving-the-reach-of-outreaching-addiction-prevention-among-vulnerable-youngsters-by-region-tailor/samenvatting/
Website
n/a
Published reference(s)
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Mindtrouble. Kopstoring

Kopstoring
Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2011
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Objectives
In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the Kopstoring program will be compared with care as usual, which is non standardized and contains all kind of service use such as visits of a GP, psychologist, mental health services,
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Other medical sciences
Read more…
Initial identified needs
The main objective of this study is to examine the (cost) effectiveness of an online psycho-educative program for children between 16 and 25 years old from parents suffering from mental or substance use disorders.
Performed by
Maastricht University
The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction
London School of Economics and Political Science
Funded by
The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development
Summary references
Website
www.kopstoring.nl (is the website where the online course is provided)
Published reference(s)
Woolderink et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:470 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/470 Two others are submitted
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Prevalence, treatment needs and new pharmacotherapeutic treatment options for crack dependent people in the Netherlands

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Treatment responses, Harm reduction responses
Objectives
The present study proposes to investigate, in the largest, most problematic and marginalized sub-population of cocaine users - those who use crack cocaine - the possibilities and problems associated with the actual implementation of new pharmacological treatments. The pharmacotherapies proposed in the intervention part of the study will consist of topiramate and modafinil (abstinence or stimulant use reduction goal), and dexamphetamine 'slow release' (harm reduction or stimulant replacement reduction goal).
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology, Psychology, Pharmacology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Cocaine, particularly in its base form ('crack'), has become one of the drugs of most concern in the Netherlands, being associated with a wide range of medical, psychiatric and social problems for the individual, and with significant public order consequences for society. Despite this status as one of the most problematic addictions, and a twofold increase in treatment demand in the past decade, reliable prevalence estimates of cocaine dependence in the Netherlands are lacking. Moreover, available treatment options for cocaine dependent users are limited at best, and – despite the rise in treatment demand – a substantial part of the cocaine dependent population is not yet, or no longer, reached by the addiction treatment system. Psycho-social interventions for cocaine dependence generally show modest results, and there are no proven effective pharmacotherapies to date, despite the wide range of medications tested for this specific type of dependence, among others in the United States.
Performed by
Brijder Addiction Treatment, Brijder Research (PARC)
Amsterdam Medical Center/ Univerisity of Amsterdam
Funded by
ZonMw
Summary references
Nuijten et al. BMC Psychiatry 2011, 11:135 Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm (CATCH): New Pharmacological Treatment Options for Crack-Cocaine Dependence in the Netherlands
Website
Published reference(s)
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Report to the EMCDDA about the Netherlands drug situation

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2013
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Law enforcement responses, Drug related crime responses, Harm reduction responses, Supply and markets
Objectives
Main goal of the participation of the WODC: Giving an overview of developments in policy, law and statistics in the field of drug related crime.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
It is the annual report about the national drug situation of EU-countries to the EMCDDA
Performed by
Trimbos Institute (Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction)
WODC
Funded by
Ministry of Health, Ministry of Security and Justice
Summary references
It is an annual report. Most recent edition is: Laar, M. van, Cruts, G., Ooyen-Houben, M. van, Meije, D., Croes, E., Meijer, R. & Ketelaars, T. (2013). Report to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point, The Netherlands drug situation 2012. Utrecht: Trimbos Institute. See www.trimbos.nl and www.wodc.nl
Website
www.wodc.nl
Published reference(s)
see above
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The private club and the residence criterion for Dutch coffeeshops

Funding country
Netherlands
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2014
Area(s) of research
Law enforcement responses, Drug related crime responses, Harm reduction responses, Supply and markets
Objectives
Giving insight in the implementation, effectiveness and sight-effects of the newly introduced rules for coffeeshops
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Criminology
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Lower House of Parliament asked for an evaluation of the new coffeeshop rules
Performed by
WODC - project leader is Marianne van Ooyen
Bonger Institute for Criminology - University of Amsterdam - Dirk Korf and his team
Bureau Intraval - Bert Bieleman and his team
Funded by
WODC
Summary references
see www.wodc.nl Title: Het Besloten club- en het Ingezetenencriterium voor coffeeshops Authors: M. van Ooyen, B. Bieleman, D. Korf
Website
www.wodc.nl
Published reference(s)
Ooyen-Houben, M. van, Bieleman, B. & Korf, D.J. (2013). Het Besloten club- en het Ingezetenencriterium voor coffeeshops. The Hague: WODC, Ministry of Security and Justice. www.wodc.nl
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