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Searching information on drug research projects

This database contains information gathered in the course of the ERANID project during 2013 and 2014. Principally, it contains details of research projects on illicit drugs carried out since 2010 within the six ERANID countries and funded by the European Committee: Belgium; France; Italy; Portugal; The Netherlands; and the United Kingdom. However, this database will not capture all illicit drugs research carried out within a country.

32 projects matched the selected criteria:

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3rd National survey on psychoactive substance use in general population in Portugal, 2012

III Inquérito Nacional ao Consumo de Substâncias Psicoativas na População Geral, Portugal 2012
Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Methodology issues
Objectives
1) To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, pshychoactive medicines and illicit drugs use and gambling and to characterize their patterns; 2) to produce comparable statistics and information, either with results of former General Population Surveys (in 2001 and 2007), or with those of other countries, especially in terms of indicators promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), as well as the World Health Organization (WHO); 3) to produce reference data to estimate variations in consumption. "
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Sociology
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Objectives (native)
Estimar a prevalência dos diversos comportamentos de consumo; Produzir estatísticas e informação comparáveis, quer com os resultados dos Primeiro e Segundo Inquéritos à População Geral (em 2001 e 2007), quer com os de outros países, nomeadamente no âmbito dos indicadores promovidos pelo Observatório Europeu da Droga e da Toxicodependência, assim como pela Organização Mundial de saúde; Produzir dados de referência para estimar variações de consumo.
Initial identified needs
Performed by
CESNOVA, Centre for Sociological Studies of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Funded by
SICAD - Serviço de Intervenção nos Comportamentos Aditivos e nas Dependências
Summary references
http://cesnova.fcsh.unl.pt/?area=102&mid=000&id=CNT516fcdfd06591http://www.idt.pt/PT/Noticias/Documents/2013/Relatorio%20Preliminar_06052013.pdf
Website
cesnova.fcsh.unl.pt; www.idt.pt
Published reference(s)
http://www.idt.pt/PT/Noticias/Documents/2013/Relatorio%20Preliminar_06052013.pdf
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Attachment in substance addicts

Vinculação em dependentes de substâncias
Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Methodology issues
Objectives
'1) Development of an adaptation of Questionnaire Linking Care (Caregiving Questionnaire) of Kunce & Shaver (1994) in a clinical sample of substance use dependents in treatment (in the therapeutic community and methadone program); 2) Test the validity of the new instrument through the structures of correlations between a measure linking Portugal and already validated questionnaire system of care, 3) Compare the results obtained in normative samples with the results obtained in the clinical population of substance dependence.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Psychology
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Objectives (native)
1. Desenvolvimento da adaptação do Questionário de Cuidados de Vinculação (Caregiving Questionnaire) de Kunce & Shaver (1994) numa amostra clínica de dependentes de substâncias em tratamento (participantes integrados em comunidade terapêutica e em programa de metadona). 2. Testar a validade do novo instrumento através das estruturas de correlações entre uma medida de vinculação já validada em Portugal e o questionário de sistema de prestação de cuidados. 3. Comparar os resultados obtidos em amostras normativas com os resultados obtidos na população clínica de dependentes de substâncias.
Initial identified needs
Many individuals addicted to psychoactive substances have patterns of insecure attachment and fear of intimacy in their close relationships with parents, peers and intimate partners. To understand the role that the regulation of attachement relations and emotional care plays in the life trajectories and in treatment of people with substance dependence is an important area for prevention, treatment and relapse prevention.
Initial identified needs (native)
Muitos indivíduos dependentes de substâncias têm padrões inseguros de vinculação e receio da intimidade nas suas relações próximas com os pais, os pares e os parceiros íntimos. Entender o papel que a regulação das relações de vinculação e de prestação de cuidados emocionais desempenha nas trajectórias de vida e de tratamento de pessoas dependentes de substâncias é uma área importante para a prevenção, tratamento e prevenção das recaídas.
Performed by
ISPA-Unit of Investigation in Developmental Psychology
Neuroscience Program. Washington State University
Funded by
fundação para a ciência e tecnologia, ISPA
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
Torres, N.; Oliveira ,D.; Dias, F.; Shaver, P.; Panksepp, J. (2013, May). Testing a neuro-evolutionary theory of social bonds and addiction. Methadone reduces self-reported attachment anxiety, comfort with closeness/intimacy and proximity maintenance. Implications of Research on the Neuroscience of Affect, Attachment, and Social Cognition Biannual Conference. University College London, 18-19 May 2013. Torres, N., Oliveira, D. , Dias F. & Shaver, P. (2012, June) Differences in Attachment and Caregiving between Addicts in Drug-free Treatment, Methadone Users and Normal Controls. The International Neuro-Psychoanalysis Society Congress. From Addiction to Relationships: Neuropsychoanalytic perspectives on craving, caring and clinging. Athens, 14-16 June 2012 Oliveira, D., Torres, N., Dias F. & Shaver, P. (2012, June) Adult attachment and caregiving in university students: development of a Portuguese version of the caregiving questionnaire. The International Neuro-Psychoanalysis Society Congress. From Addiction to Relationships: Neuropsychoanalytic perspectives on craving, caring and clinging. Athens, 14-16 June 2012 Torres, N. & Oliveira, D. (2010) Vinculação e Sistema de Prestação de cuidados em dependentes de substâncias em tratamento. Adaptação Portuguesa do Questionário de Prestação de Cuidados. Toxicodependências, 16 (2), 3-14. http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php?pid=S0874-48902010000200002&script=sci_arttext Ramalho, A. (2010, Janeiro) Vinculação e Auto-conceito em Sujeitos Toxicodependentes Residentes em Comunidades Terapêuticas. Tese de Mestrado Área de especialização em Psicologia Clínica, ISPA Oliveira António, D. (2010, Janeiro) Vinculação do Adulto e Sistema Comportamental de Prestação de Cuidados em Toxicodependentes integrados em Comunidade Terapêutica e em Programa de Metadona. Tese de Mestrado Área de especialização em Psicologia Clínica, ISPA.
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ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs) in Portugal

Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use
Objectives
1) Periodically carried out (periods of 4 years); 2) Comparison of the prevalence of alcohol use and other substances psicotivas, among 15/16 years old students, in more than 35 European countries; 3) Use the results to evaluate the " Action Plan on Drugs " of European Union and beyond; 4) Provide data to the EMCDDA and the WHO "
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology, Sociology
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Objectives (native)
- Realização periódica (períodos de 4 anos) - comparação das prevalências de consumo de alcool e outras substaâncias psicotivas, aos 15/16 anos, nos países da Europa - utilização dos resultados para avaliação do "Plano de Acção de Luta contra a Droga" da UE; - Fornecimento de dados par ao EMCDDA
Initial identified needs
To track over time and several European countries, the evolution of consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive substances among students who complete 16 years in the year data collection.
Initial identified needs (native)
Acompanhar ao longo do tempo e dos diversos países Europeus, a evolução dos consumos de álcool e de outras substâncias psicoativas, entree os alunos que completam 16 anos no ano a recolha de dados.
Performed by
SICAD - DEI (General Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies -Division of statistics and surveys)
Funded by
SICAD - Ministério da Saúde, Ministério da Educação, OEDT- Observatório Europeu da Droga e Toxicodepndência
Summary references
Summary. 2011 ESPAD report. Substance use among students in 36 European countries. http://www.espad.org/Uploads/ESPAD_reports/2011/Extended_EMCDDA_2011_ESPAD_Summary_EN.pdf
Website
www.espad.org
Published reference(s)
Hibell, B. et al. (2012). "The 2011 ESPAD Report" (2012). Stockolm:CAN
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Health behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC)- Portugal

Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
1996
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects, Methodology issues
Objectives
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Demography, Economy, Epidemiology, Neurosciences, Psychology, Sociology, Other medical sciences
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Objectives (native)
Estudar os estilos dvida e comprotamentos asosicados a saude e ao risco em jovens em idade escolar
Initial identified needs
School survey (6th, 8th and 10th school years): state of the art, monitoring over time, international comparison
Initial identified needs (native)
Inquerito à população em idade escolar ( 6º, 8º e 10 anos ): estado da arte, monitorização ao longo do tempo, comparação internacional
Performed by
Centre of the Malaria and Tropical Diseases
Universidade de Lisboa
Universidade Lusiada
Associação Aventura Social
Funded by
Ministerio da Saúde, Ministério da Educação
Summary references
Ver relatorios em www.aventurasocial.com em " publicações"
Website
www.hbsc.org
Published reference(s)
www.aventurasocial.com/perfilutilizador.php?profile_id=5www.researcherid.com/rid/H-3824-2012www.cmdt.ihmt.unl.pt/index.php/pt/2011-10-28-16-24-30/2011-11-30-10-53-56/health-of-populations-groups
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Impact of methamphetamine on the blood-brain barrier: unmasking the underlying mechanisms and the role of neuroinflammation

Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
The aim of the present project is to clarify the effect of METH on the BBB since it may be crucial for both decompensation of brain functions and cell injury following drug consumption. Since the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying increased BBB breakdown associated with the consumption of psychostimulants remain unknown, we propose to clarify this issue by looking at the effect of methamphetamine on: 1) BBB permeability taking particularly attention to changes in tight junction proteins; 2) Levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); 3) Crosstalk between endothelial cells and astrocytes; 4) Adhesion and migration of leukocytes. A protective strategy will be also evaluated by looking at: 5) The role of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology
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Initial identified needs
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant drug of abuse that has steadily gained popularity worldwide. On average, 3.3% of all European adults report having used amphetamines at least once. In Portugal the consumption of METH has also increased during the last few years not only as a recreative drug, but also as a “treatment” to lose weight. This costly pandemic presents an enormous challenge to the government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the drug abuse research community. It is known that METH is a neurotoxic addictive drug that causes irreversible damage of neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells leading to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, in contrast to the multiple factors contributing to chronic METH neurotoxicity, the mechanisms underlying life-threatening effects of acute METH intoxication remain less clear. Very recently, a few studies have suggested that METH-induced neurotoxicity may also result from its ability to compromise the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, given the limited understanding of the effect of METH on the BBB, the purpose of the present project is to clarify the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the BBB dysfunction associated with the consumption of METH, and the possible involvement of neuroinflammation.
Performed by
University of Coimbra, Portugal (UC)
Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNBC), Coimbra, Portugal
Funded by
FCT/COMPETE/FEDER
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
Papers: 3. Martins T, Burgoyne T, Kenny BA, Hudson N, Futter CE, Ambrósio AF, Silva AP, Greenwood J, Turowski P. (2013) Methamphetamine-induced nitric oxide promotes vesicular transport in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells. Neuropharmacology 65:74-82. 2. Martins T., Baptista S., Gonçalves J., Leal E., Milhazes N., Borges F., Ribeiro C.F., Quintela O., Lendoiro E., López-Rivadulla M., Ambrósio A.F., Silva A.P. (2011) Methamphetamine transiently increases the blood-brain barrier permeability in the hippocampus: role of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Brain Res. 1411:28-40. 1. Silva A.P., Martins T., Baptista S., Gonçalves J., Agasse F., Malva J.O. (2010) Brain Injury Associated With Widely Abused Amphetamines: Neuroinflammation, Neurogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 3(4):239-54. Abstracts: Martins T.; Hudson N.; Milhazes N.; Borges F., Ambrósio A.F.; Silva A.P.; Greenwood J.; Turowski P. (2011) NITRIC OXIDE MEDIATES METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER DYSFUNCTION. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 372.03. 41th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC, E.U.A., 12-16 de Novembro. Martins T., Turowski P., Milhazes N., Borges F., Ambrósio A. F., Silva A.P., Greenwood J. (2010) Methamphetamine induces the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase isoform in brain endothelial cells. FENS Abstr., vol.5, 164.8, "7th FENS Forum", Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 3-7.
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Implications of amphetamine psychostimulants abuse in brain aging

Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevention responses, Treatment responses, Harm reduction responses, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
AIM 1: Investigate how chronic exposure to amphetamines and their metabolites may affect the number and fate of rat embryonic cortical neurons PARADIGM 1: Exposure of embryonic cortical neuron cultures from the rat to amphetamines and their metabolites (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) on the day of seeding and the latter evaluation of the number of precursor cells and neurites, as well as study the intracellular proteins involved in these mechanisms. AIM 2: Provide a cell culture model of primary cortical neurons and astrocytes of rat that mimic an amphetamine’s chronic exposure. PARADIGM 2: Exposure of cortical and astrocyte cultures from the rat to amphetamines and their metabolites (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) at the 4th day during 4 days. Evaluation of oxidative stress and cellular energy status focusing the mitochondria, and reveal intracellular pathways. Pharmacological block neurotoxic effects. AIM 3: Human cortical and astrocytes exposure to amphetamines mimicking chronic exposure. PARADIGM 3: As written in paradigm 2. AIM 4: Mimic the misuse of drugs in the Human adolescent period with a rat adolescent model and evaluate the effects of amphetamines exposure during adolescence in the aging process. PARADIGM 4: Exposure of adolescent wistar rats (aged between post-natal day (PD) 35 to PD 60) to amphetamines (10 mg/kg/dose X 2 every 5th day), the neurotoxic effects will be evaluated six months after the last exposure. Immunocytochemistry, monoamine metabolite levels, oxidative stress markers at the mitochondrial level will be assessed, and pharmacological block that neurotoxicity.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology, Other medical sciences, Toxicology
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Initial identified needs
Cellular brain aging process has been proved to be correlated with an accumulation of free radicals to which cells cannot coupe with, leading to an increase cellular damage (Halliwell, 2006), with mitochondrial damage playing a leading role (Weissman et al., 2007). Interestingly, amphetamines promote free radical production and oxidative stress in the brain, as our group and others have established. We showed that amphetamine (AMPH) and MDMA can elicit an increase in oxidative stress, promote apoptotic neuronal death and produce mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in both cultured neurons and animal brains (Carvalho et al., 2001; Capela et al., 2006a; Alves et al., 2007; Capela et al., 2007b). Therefore, both brain aging and amphetamine neurotoxicity share common features, namely oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and neuronal cell death. HYPOTHESIS Does the use of amphetamines accelerate the process of brain aging? This problem is yet unanswered by current data, and is not evaluated by current laboratory paradigms of animal or cell culture by the exposure to amphetamine psychostimulants.
Performed by
Institute of Sciences and Agrarian and Agriculture-alimentary Technologies- Porto (ICETA-Porto/UP)
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra (FM/UC)
Fundação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FFCT/FCT/UNL)
Funded by
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia
Summary references
Alves E, Binienda Z, Carvalho F, Alves CJ, Fernandes E, de Lourdes Bastos M, Tavares MA and Summavielle T (2009) Acetyl-l-carnitine provides effective in vivo neuroprotection over 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine-induced mitochondrial neurotoxicity in the adolescent rat brain. Neuroscience 158:514- 523. Alves E, Summavielle T, Alves CJ, Gomes-da-Silva J, Barata JC, Fernandes E, de Lourdes Bastos M, Tavares MA and Carvalho F (2007) Monoamine oxidase-B mediates ecstasyinduced neurotoxic effects to adolescent rat brain mitochondria. J Neurosci 27:10203-10210. Capela JP, Fernandes E, Remiao F, Bastos ML, Meisel A and Carvalho F (2007a) Ecstasy induces apoptosis via 5-HT2A-receptor stimulation in cortical neurons. Neurotoxicology 28:868-875. Capela JP, Lautenschlager M, Dirnagl U, Bastos ML, Carvalho F and Meisel A (2008) 5,7-Dihydroxitryptamine toxicity to serotonergic neurons in serum free raphe cultures. Eur J Pharmacol 588:232-238. Capela JP, Macedo C, Branco PS, Ferreira LM, Lobo AM, Fernandes E, Remiao F, Bastos ML, Dirnagl U, Meisel A and Carvalho F (2007b) Neurotoxicity mechanisms of thioether ecstasy metabolites. Neuroscience 146:1743-1757. Capela JP, Meisel A, Abreu AR, Branco PS, Ferreira LM, Lobo AM, Remião F, Bastos ML and Carvalho F (2006a) Neurotoxicity of ecstasy metabolites in rat cortical neurons, and influence of hyperthermia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316:53-61. Capela JP, Ruscher K, Lautenschlager M, Freyer D, Dirnagl U, Gaio AR, Bastos ML, Meisel A and Carvalho F (2006b) Ecstasy-induced cell death in cortical neuronal cultures is serotonin 2A-receptor-dependent and potentiated under hyperthermia. Neuroscience 139:1069-1081. Carmo H, Remiao F, Carvalho F, Fernandes E, Boer Dd, Reys LAd and Bastos ML (2003) 4-Methylthioamphetamine-induced hyperthermia in mice: influence of serotonergic and catecholaminergic pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 190:262-271 Carvalho F, Fernandes E, Remião F, Gomes-Da-Silva J, Tavares MA and Bastos MDL (2001) Adaptative response of antioxidant enzymes in different areas of rat brain after repeated d-amphetamine administration. Addict Biol 6:213-221. Carvalho F, Remiao F, Amado F, Domingues P, Correia AJ and Bastos ML (1996) d- Amphetamine interaction with glutathione in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Res Toxicol 9:1031-1036. Costa VM, Silva R, Ferreira LM, Branco PS, Carvalho F, Bastos ML, Carvalho RA, Carvalho M and Remião F (2007) Oxidation process of adrenaline in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes: formation of adrenochrome, quinoproteins and GSH-adduct. Chem Res Toxicol 20:1183-1191. Costa VM, Silva R, Ferreira R, Amado F, Carvalho F, Bastos ML, Carvalho RA, Carvalho M and Remiao F (2009) Adrenaline in pro-oxidant conditions elicits intracellular survival pathways in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Toxicology 257(1-2):70-79 Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Sousa C, Remião F, Duarte JA, Navarro AS, Bastos ML and Carvalho F (2007) Full survival of paraquat-exposed rats after treatment with sodium salicylate. Free Radic Biol Med 42:1017-1028. EMCDDA (2007) Annual report 2007: the state of the drugs problem in Europe, in, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon. 15 2007 Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW and Hanson GR (2007) New Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 47:681-698. Halliwell B (2006) Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now? J Neurochem 97:1634-1658. Hernandez-Rabaza V, Dominguez-Escriba L, Barcia JA, Rosel JF, Romero FJ, Garcia- Verdugo JM and Canales JJ (2006) Binge administration of 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy") impairs the survival of neural precursors in adult rat dentate gyrus. Neuropharmacology 51:967-973. Krasnova IN, Ladenheim B and Cadet JL (2005) Amphetamine induces apoptosis of medium spiny striatal projection neurons via the mitochondria-dependent
Website
Not applicable
Published reference(s)
1: Ferreira PS, Nogueira TB, Costa VM, Branco PS, Ferreira LM, Fernandes E, Bastos ML, Meisel A, Carvalho F, Capela JP. Neurotoxicity of "ecstasy" and its metabolites in human dopaminergic differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Toxicol Lett. 2013; 216(2-3):159-70. 2: Martins JB, Bastos Mde L, Carvalho F, Capela JP. Differential Effects of Methyl-4 Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells. J Toxicol. 2013; 2013:347312. 3: Capela JP, da Costa Araújo S, Costa VM, Ruscher K, Fernandes E, Bastos Mde L, Dirnagl U, Meisel A, Carvalho F. The neurotoxicity of hallucinogenic amphetamines in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2013 Jan;34:254-263. 4: Carvalho M, Carmo H, Costa VM, Capela JP, Pontes H, Remião F, Carvalho F, Bastos Mde L. Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2012 Aug;86(8):1167-1231. 5: Barbosa DJ, Capela JP, Oliveira JM, Silva R, Ferreira LM, Siopa F, Branco PS, Fernandes E, Duarte JA, de Lourdes Bastos M, Carvalho F. Pro-oxidant effects of Ecstasy and its metabolites in mouse brain synaptosomes. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;165(4b):1017-1033.
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National School Survey 2011-3 rd Level of Basic School

Inquérito Nacional em Meio Escolar 2011 - 3º Ciclo
Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
1) To characterize, under an epidemiological perspective drugs, alcohol and tobacco use, among students of the 3rd Cycle of public education; 2) to get detailed knowledge of the situation in the various regions of the country; 3) to relate the level of consumption with different risk factors; 4) to understand the evolution, over time and national geographic space , of the variables analyzed. "
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology, Sociology
Read more…
Objectives (native)
-Caracterização do ponto de vista epidemiológico o consumo de drogas, álcool e tabaco, entre os alunos do 3º Ciclo do ensino público; - Conhecimento detalhado da situação nas diversas regiões do país; - Relacionar o nível dos consumos com diversos factotres de risco; - Conhecer a evolução ao longo do tempo e do espaço geográfico nacional, das várias dimensões analisadas.
Initial identified needs
Project started in 2001, repeated in 2006 and 2011 in order to meet the national information needs regarding the characterization and evolution of psychoactive substances use among teenagers, particularly to the evaluation of the National Drugs Stategy and related Action Plans.
Initial identified needs (native)
Projecto iniciado em 2001, repetido em 2006 e 2011, com vista a responder às necessidades de informação a nível nacional relativamente à caracterização dos consumos de substâncias psicoativas entre os adolescentes, designadamente quanto à avaliação da Estartégia Nacional da Luta contra a Droga.
Performed by
SICAD - DEI (General Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies -Division of statistics and surveys)
Funded by
SICAD - Ministério da Saude, Ministério da Educação
Summary references
Feijao, F. (2012). Inquérito Nacional em Meio Escolar, 2011. 3.º Ciclo do Ensino Básico. Consumo de drogas e outras substâncias psicoacticas: uma abordagem integrada. Sintese de resultados. SICAD: Lisboa. http://idt.pt/PT/Investigacao/Paginas/Estudos Concluidos.aspx
Website
Published reference(s)
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Neuroprotecting mechanisms of carnitine in mitochondrial dysfunction

Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2010
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Treatment responses, Mechanism of drug use and effects
Objectives
The proposed project is expected to produce valuable knowledge-base for future ALC clinical therapies in drug-abuse related disorders. We expect to identitfy the pathways involved in the action of ALC using both in vivo and in vitro models of exposure to METH.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Neurosciences, Pharmacology, Other medical sciences
Read more…
Initial identified needs
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) is a natural occurring compound that facilitates the transport of long chain free fatty acids across the mitochondrial membranes for β-oxidation. ALC has been proposed to have beneficial effects in chronic neurodegenerative disorders caused by production of abnormal proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, including long term drug-abuse. The main outcome of ALC supplementation is the improvement of mitochondrial function. ALC has been shown to be neuroprotective, in a dose and time dependent manner, through a variety of processes, including: membrane stabilization and ionic homeostasis, altered synaptic plasticity, increased expression of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), heat shock proteins and superoxide dismutase, decreased expression of iNOS, increased resistance to neurotoxic events, and improved cognitive performance . Our group has successfully demonstrated that pre-treatment with ALC confers effective neuroprotection against 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity, preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage, reducing carbonyl formation, decreasing mtDNA deletion, improving expression of respiratory chain components and, most importantly, preventing the typical MDMA-induced serotonin loss (Alves et al, Neuroscience, 2009). Taken together, these pre-clinical studies reinforce the beneficial potential of ALC as a neuroprotectant in neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of ALC. We reason that ALC is likely to be a very valuable adjunct in clinical therapy for drug abuse related disorders and that elucidation of ALC molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotection will be a fundamental step in formulating such therapies. Modified amphetamines are potent psychostimulant, well characterized and long used in our laboratory as models of neurotoxicity. Long-term exposure to these drugs results in high levels of neurotoxicity, mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation, which produces mitochondrial dysfunction and long-term damage to dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Particularly, the nigrostriatal damage evidenced after exposure to methamphetamine (METH) resembles the neurodegeneration observed in PD, making it a putative experimental model for the study of drug-induced neurodegenerative processes. METH-induced activation of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic cell death signaling events is known to be associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic factors and subsequent activation of apoptotic cascades, creating a suitable model for exploring the action mechanisms of ALC. Therefore, we propose to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroprotectant features of ALC, using exposure to METH as models of induced neurotoxicity in two different paradigms: 1) Exposure to METH of SH-SY5Y cell lines and neuronal primary cultures, aiming to understand, in a dose dependent study, the interaction of ALC with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. The proposed study will include investigating the role of ALC in the redox properties of the mitochondria, misfolding and aggregation of proteins and formation of inclusions-like bodies, as well as autophagic processes and altered fusion/fission regulation. 2) ALC was reported to increase the expression of Hsp 70 and heme- oxygenase-1 (decreasing also the expression of iNOS) indicating an association between the mechanisms of nitrosative stress and Hsp induction. Therefore, we are most interested in using the iNOS knock-out mice model to explore the role of ALC in METH-induced toxicity in low oxidative environment. Particular attention will be given to proteins involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and integrity.Likewise, the mechanisms regulating the NO-induced neurotoxicity will be a
Performed by
Addiction Biology Group, IBMC, University of Porto
Funded by
FCT
Summary references
http://www.fct.pt/apoios/projectos/consulta/vglobal_projecto.phtml.pt?idProjecto=100630&idElemConcurso=2746
Website
Published reference(s)
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/ajnn/2011/00000003/00000001/art00014 (2011 - Summavielle T, Cunha L, Damiani D, Bravo J, Binienda Z, Koverech A, Virmani A. Neuroprotective action of acetyl- L-carnitine on methamphetamine-induced dopamine release. Am. J. Neuroprotec. Neuroregen 3: 1-7.) Fernandes S, Bravo J, Lapa J and Summavielle T. (2013) Acetyl-L-carnitine may confer protection on structural and permeability damage induced by methamphetamine. Beating the Blood Brain and Other & Blood Barriers, February 6-8, Lisboa, Portugal. A Lobo, J Bravo, J Casais, AVirmani , T Summavielle (2012) Neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine in hippocampal cultured neurons subjected to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. 11th International Conference on Neuroprotective Agents, September 30 - Oct 3, 2012, Wendake/Quebec City, Canada (poster). Summavielle T, Cunha L, Bravo J, Fernandes S, Costa P, Metello LF, Gonçalves R, Duarte M. (2012) Acetyl-L-Carnitine neuroprotection and mitochondria bioenergetics. Society for Neuroscience (SFN), October 13-17, New Orleans, USA (poster). Cunha L, Bravo J, Costa P, Fernandes S, Oliveira M, Castro R, Metello LF and Summavielle T. (2012) Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Cell Bioenergetics. European Association of Nuclear Medicine, October 27-31. Milan, Italy (poster). Fernandes, S., Cunha, L., Bravo, J. and Summavielle T. Altered Gene Expression after ALC Treatment in a Mice Model of Exposure to Methamphetamine. Champalimaud Neuroscience Symposium. Lisboa, Portugal, Setembro 18-21. (poster) Cunha L, Bravo J, Magalhães A, Fernandes S, Binienda Z, Virmani A and Summavielle T (2011) Acetyl-L-carnitine improves in vitro mitochondrial bioenergetics and function. Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Washington, DC, Novembro 12-16 (poster)
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New Psychoactive Substances. The case of salvia divinorum

Novas Substâncias Psicoativas - O caso da salvia divinorum.
Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2013
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use, Mechanism of drug use and effects, Supply and markets
Objectives
To gather available information on the consumption and sale of salvia divinorum in Portugal.
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Anthropology
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Objectives (native)
Reunir a informação disponível sobre o consumo e a comercialização de salvia divinorum em Portugal.
Initial identified needs
Improve the knowledge about the New Psychoactive Substances use, an emerging phenomenon in the country
Initial identified needs (native)
Conhecer o fenómeno das NSP, fenómeno emergente.
Performed by
SICAD - DEI (General Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies -Division of statistics and surveys)
Funded by
SICAD
Summary references
Website
Published reference(s)
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Psychoactive substances use and lifestyles among college students

Consumos e estilos de vida em meio universitário
Funding country
Portugal
Project starting year
2012
Project ending year
2013
Area(s) of research
Prevalence, incidence and patterns of drug use, Determinants of drug use, Consequences of drug use
Objectives
Studying healthy living and consumption of psychoactive substances among students of the University of Lisbon
Scientific discipline(s) involved
Epidemiology, Psychology
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Objectives (native)
Estudar modos de vida saudável e consumos em estudantes universitários da universidade de lisboa
Initial identified needs
Lack of studies on the consumption of psychoactive substances on college students
Initial identified needs (native)
Desconhecimento da população universitária
Performed by
SICAD (General Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies )
OPJ
ICS
Funded by
SICAD, OPJ/CNJ
Summary references
-
Website
-
Published reference(s)
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